Sharia is the Arabic word for Islamic law, also known as the Law of Allah. Islam classically draws no distinction

between religious, and secular life. Hence Sharia covers not only religious rituals, but many aspects of day-today

life, politics, economics, banking, business or contract law, and social issues.

There are three major components of Islamic Sharia Law

1. Quran

2. Sunnah

3. Ijtihad


Components of Islamic Shariah Law:

There are three major components of Islamic Sharia Law (Quran, Sunnah and Ijtihad):

1. Quranic Law

“Remember! The command is for none but Allah” (12:40)

In the Quraan there are certain laws (the details of) which have been determined (FIXED) and for

others guidance has been provided only in principle (flexible according to time under the

boundary limits). The determined laws shall be enforced as is. As far as those laws are

concerned where only the principles are given, an Islamic State shall frame details thereof

staying within the parameters of these principles according to the needs of their time. These

principles shall remain immutable but the rules framed under their guidance shall be liable to

change in accordance with the exigencies of advancing times. This is the expedience, on the

basis of which Allah did not determine the by-laws Himself. If it had so happened, these laws

could not remain consistent with the exigencies of time, and that could render the working of

the way of life prescribed by Him, impracticable. The Book that was intended to remain a code

of guidance for all times and for all the people, had to be thus, i.e. the principles should be

immutable (variable) and detailed (fixed) applicatory by-laws changeable with the change of

time. Only this blend of permanence and change could keep the system permanently

practicable through all times. This reality has been clarified by saying:

O you who believe! (What is necessary for the guidance of mankind has been given through

revelation and is prescribed in the Quraan). Do not put questions about things which if declared

(fixed not flexible according to time) to you may trouble you, and if you question about them when

the Quraan is being revealed, they shall be declared to you; Allah pardons this, and Allah is Forgiving,

Forbearing. O people before you indeed asked such questions, and then became disbelievers on

account of them. (Al_Quraan_005:101-102)

2. Fiqh-us-Sunnah (Authentic Hadeeth and Sunnah)

Allah already told us to Obey Rasool Allah as well.

O ye who believe! Obey Allah and His Messenger (SAW), and turn not away from him when ye hear

(him speak). Be not as those who say, we hear, and they hear not. Lo! The worst of beasts in Allah’s

sight are the deaf, the dumb, who have no sense. (Al_Quraan_008.020 – 022)

O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and do not make your deeds of no effect

(by disobeying Allah and his Messenger). (Al_Quraan_047.033)

It is not fitting for a Believer, men or women, when a matter has been decided by Allah and His

Messenger, to have any option about their decision: if anyone disobeys Allah and His Messenger

(SAW), he is indeed on a clearly wrong Path. (Al_Quraan_033.036)

And obey Allah and His Messenger and do not quarrel (fall into no disputes) for then you will be

weak in hearts and your power will depart, and be patient; surely Allah is with the patient.


If you DIFFER in anything (Faith, Salaat, Sayaam, Zakaat, etc.) amongst yourself, then REFER to

Allah and his Messenger, if you really believe in Allah and in the Last Day. That is better and more

suitable for determinations. [Al_Quraan_004.059]

3. Ijtihad (progressive reasoning by analogy), Ijmaa

(consensus), Qiyaas (analogy)

Allah also told us to Obey Those Who are in Authority (Leader / Leader of the House).

O you who believe! obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority (Leader) from

among you; then if you differ about anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you believe in

Allah and the last day; this is better and very good in the end. (Al_Quraan_004.059)

And withhold yourself with those who call on their Lord morning and evening desiring His

goodwill, and let not your eyes pass from them (always yes sir, till they follow the Quraan and

Really Authentic Sunnah)

desiring the beauties of this world’s life; and do not follow him whose heart We have made unmindful to Our remembrance, and he follows his low desires and his case is

one in which due bounds are exceeded. (Al_Quraan_018.028)

Allah has promised to those of you who believe and do good that He will most certainly make them

rulers in the earth as He made rulers those before them, and that He will most certainly establish for

them their religion which He has chosen for them, and that He will most certainly, after their fear, give

them security in exchange; they shall serve Me, not associating aught with Me; and whoever is

ungrateful after this, these it is who are the. transgressors. (Al_Quraan_024.055)

Men are the Leader (Manager, Maintainers, Protectors, Responsible, Taking Care) of women

because Allah has made some of them to excel others and (also) because they spend out of

their property; the good women are therefore obedient, guarding the unseen as Allah has

guarded; and (as to) those on whose part you fear desertion, admonish them, and leave them

alone in the sleeping-places and beat them; then if they obey you, do not seek a way against

them; surely Allah is High, Great. (Al_Quraan_004.034)

And do not covet that by which Allah has made some of you excel others; men shall have the

benefit of what they earn and women shall have the benefit of what they earn; and ask Allah of

His grace; surely Allah knows all things. (Al_Quraan_004.032)

The Quraan is the first and foremost source, followed by the Authentic Hadeeth and Sunnah,

which do not contradict the Quraan, and FINALLY followed by the Ijmaa / Qiyaas / Ijtihaad

according to the time and place, and may take benefits from modern sciences as well, of course which do not contradict the Quraan and Authentic Hadeeth and Sunnah.